The Crooked Lake Review

Fall 2004

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The Beddoe Tract

7,000 Acres in Central Western New York

Its History - from 1792 to 2004


Jane P. Davis

The intention of this article is to put together pieces of fragmented history about the Beddoe tract. In addition, it is appropriate to include parts of John Beddoe's ship's log for the ship SULIVAN on a voyage to Canton, China, from Portsmouth, England, during 1783, 1784 and 1785. This log was given to the Town of Jerusalem by Lewis Slingerland, who inherited it from his grandmother, Adaline French. She lived near the present Jerusalem Town Offices, then the District 14 Schoolhouse. The log had been used as a scrapbook. Much time and care was required to restore it to a readable form. Working with his log helped to reveal Beddoe's background and the preciseness he followed in his work.

The smell of gunsmoke had hardly cleared from the battlefields of the Revolutionary War before European investors began to consider buying and selling real estate in North America as a money-making possibility for them. Even earlier, shortly after the outbreak of the war, Sir William Johnstone-Pulteney, member of the British Parliament, had published a pamphlet titled: "Thoughts on the Present State of Affairs with America, and the Means of Conciliation." He understood the stand of the American Colonies on "taxation without representation" and urged the continuing union of Great Britain and its American Colonies. Sir William had sought as a British emissary under the name of "Mr. Williams," a conference in 1778 with Benjamin Franklin in Paris, on this very subject.

Sir William Johnstone-Pulteney was, at this time, 49 years of age. Born in Westerkirk Parish, Dumfriesshire, Scotland, at the family's ancestral home of Westerhall, he was the third son of Sir James Johnstone and Barbara Murray of Elibank. He studied law and in 1751 became a member of the Scottish Bar and was respected in his field. He had a reputation of being a modest, thrifty, refined person with good judgment. Johnstone carried out projects for the public good in his home district and in Edinburgh. At age 31 he had married Frances Pulteney, niece and heiress of the first Earl of Bath, and daughter of General Daniel Pulteney. In 1767 she inherited great wealth from her family. William Johnstone, following a British custom that the husband of an heiress often assumed the surname of his wife in order to administer her business affairs, took the Pulteney name.

Sir William had left Edinburgh for London in 1760, and served in Parliament from 1768 to 1805. He was much respected by other members for his honesty and integrity. His quiet manner and his strong personality was reflected in the thoroughness with which he approached his duties in the House.

William Johnstone was a speculator in the development of real estate in Bath, England, and even before the American Revolution he had investments in the colonies and the West Indies. Johnstone inherited his wife's fortune when she died in 1782 and had that wealth also to invest. A new nation that had just achieved its independence was attractive not only to immigrants but to speculators as well. He was not alone in recognizing the profit opportunities in purchasing and opening up land for settlement; Dutch interest ran high as well, with a like goal in mind.

There were some serious stumbling blocks to any investor's progress: overlapping territorial claims of Massachusetts and New York, the original rights of the Indian inhabitants, a lack of accurate surveys, and American distrust of foreign investment. The two states convened the Hartford Convention in November of 1786 in Connecticut to tackle their conflicting territorial claims and the pre-emptive rights of land ownership within the region between Lake Ontario and Pennsylvania. The appointed commissioners reached an agreement before the end of that year.

Massachusetts was to get the pre-emptive rights and after the land was sold; New York would receive sovereignty. The eastern boundary was to be a north-south line extending north from the 82nd milestone on the Pennsylvania-New York border to Lake Ontario. That meant the line would run, roughly, along Seneca Lake's west shoreline. But, an actual surveyor's team had to traverse the forested territory to establish the exact line. That turned out to be a troublesome task.

For many years there was controversy over the survey and re-survey of this eastern boundary. Oliver Phelps, Nathaniel Gorham and other New England investors purchased about two million, six hundred thousand acres of central and western New York State from Massachusetts under the condition that they fairly acquire the ownership right from the Indians—the Massachusetts State legislators insisted that Indian rights be settled by a treaty. The fairness of these arrangements, which concluded July 8th, 1788, have been controversial to this day, but a treaty was made which secured the title for Phelps and Gorham.

A land office was opened in Canandaigua, but really serious financial troubles dogged the steps of these investors. In about two years Phelps and Gorham were forced to return large tracts of unsold land to Massachusetts. That state, in turn, resold these lands to an American, Robert Morris, known as "the financier of the American Revolution," in November of 1790. Now, events began to accelerate for the investors over-seas. In London, William Temple Franklin, grandson of Benjamin Franklin, an agent for Robert Morris, sold just over a million acres of land to the Pulteney Associates in 1792. The partners in the Associates were Sir William Pulteney with a 9/12th interest; William Hornby with a 2/12th interest and Patrick Colquhoun a 1/12th interest. This tract became known as the Genesee Tract as it ran from the Pre-emption Line to the Genesee River on the west between Lake Ontario and the New York - Pennsylvania border.

1790s map of the Genesee Tract
showing sales and reservations made by Phelps and Gorham
Courtesy of the Steuben County Historical Society.

Now, Sir William Johnstone-Pulteney had a purchase, but at that date, aliens were not allowed to hold title to land within the new nation. Another adventuresome Scotsman, Charles Williamson, was hired to administer the associates land in America. To do so he became a naturalized citizen and had the property in his name, held in secret trust for the British investors. Williamson left his wife and young family in Pennsylvania while he scouted the new territory. This was an awesome job; only Indian trails criss-crossed the wilderness at this time. While Seneca Lake and Crooked (Keuka) Lake were navigable, no large rivers gave easy access to them. In 1792 he explored the approximate route used by Sullivan's Campaign from the 1779 incursion into this area, to quell Indian massacres such as the one in Cherry Valley in New York, and in the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania.

Coming north from Northumberland, Pennsylvania, up the Lycoming to the Tioga and Conhocton Rivers, Williamson encountered rigorous traveling conditions. He went as far north as the Big Tree (Geneseo) area.

After returning to Philadelphia, he went around to the other approach route, up the Hudson and Mohawk and Wood's Creek through another trying journey over to Seneca Lake and Crooked Lake. It was there, near Savona, that he fell ill with Genesee Fever. The bout left him with malaria-like symptoms of the mosquito-borne illness. He was cared for by the John Dolson family until he could recuperate enough to continue his tireless pursuit of his land agent job. Williamson possessed the energy and dedication to personally oversee projects at Williamsburg (named for Sir William Pulteney) just south of present Geneseo, Bath and Geneva as well as Sodus and Lyons and Hopeton (just west of present Dresden) all at the same time.

* * *

A great religious fervor seemed to develop in the newly established United States. From Rhode Island came a new sect, established by the first native-born American woman to organize a large group of followers with sufficient finances to seek new lands for a colony. This was Jemima Wilkinson, who called herself the "Publick Universal Friend." The group's land scouts came into this area in 1787 and chose land on the west shore of Seneca Lake near where the outlet of Crooked Lake flowed into Seneca Lake. The scouting party reported back to the society, some of whose members were still in Rhode Island and Connecticut, and others in eastern Pennsylvania. The Friend Society decided to make their settlement here by Seneca Lake. Twenty-five came and wintered here in 1788-89. It was a brutal and hazard-filled experience for them. They had managed to clear land and plant 12 acres of wheat using a harrow to break the ground. Wild game supplemented their food supply. Rude log houses sheltered them. The "Genesee Fever" invaded their ranks. Their outpost was at first called the "Friend's Settlement," but soon became "New Jerusalem." By 1790 the census showed 260 people inhabiting the community. The Friend herself joined them in the spring of that year. A mill for grinding grain was set up on the outlet and a suitable house built for their leader.

The followers of The Friend were industrious and hard working. They built log houses and a log meeting house and a grist mill; the crop land and nearly level land lying near large Seneca Lake seemed good. She had nearly three hundred followers surrounding her "City Hill" settlement. Trouble came in the "clouded" land title to portions of the earliest cleared land. The Universal Friend's agent, James Parker, had tried for bargain-priced land from a group called the "Lessees." Unfortunately, the title was deemed null and void by New York State due to an unfair "leasing" deal the Lessees had made with the Indians.

By back-breaking work, land had been cleared, houses had been built so several of the Friends lost their investment. The bulk of the settlement was on land with good title from Phelps and Gorham, but Parker had been sure he was buying three or four thousand acres from, the "Lessees." Final settlement on his purchase yielded only 1,100 acres, so some Friends lost much of their money and labor, with little or nothing to show for it.

Then, the survey of the Pre-emption line made in 1788 was found to be in error and a new survey was made in 1792.

The deeds were on the basis of the first survey and the line veered from its start at the Pennsylvania line to the northwest and at the Lake Ontario end, near Sodus, it made a difference of several miles. The area between the Pre-emption survey line of 1788 made by Col. Maxwell and the re-survey of 1792 made by Benjamin Ellicott was called The Gore, a long, triangular shaped piece of land containing 85,896 acres. The second survey was accepted as the legal Pre-emption Line by the State of New York.

The confusion of losing title to property crossed by "The Gore" and the earlier Parker-Lessee experience caused great stress in the Friend's colony. The Universal Friend herself, became very upset over the clamor caused by these "Title" problems. Charles Williamson, by this time, was the administrator of the surrounding unsold property. An adjustment was worked out whereby, those who had lost land in the "Gore" would be able to obtain three acres for every one acre lost in the "Gore" survey mistake.

The Friend was uncomfortable with the atmosphere of uncertainty created by the title disputes. She hoped to withdraw to "where no intruding foot would enter." In 1794 she moved about twelve miles to the west of the original settlement. She had a temporary house built on the bank of the inlet on the north end of Crooked Lake. This stream had been named Brook Kedron by a member of the Universal Friends, Thomas Hathaway, who, along with Benedict Robinson, had purchased the land in the so called "second seventh." The followers who came to the new location, and the Friends household made maple sugar each spring from the sap of trees along the stream which later lost its biblical reference and became known as Sugar Creek.

The Friends held meetings on Saturday (their Sabbath) at the new log house. Jemima Wilkinson returned at regular intervals to hold meetings at the log meeting house at the City Hill location along Lake Seneca. Sometimes they met at David Wagener's house situated on the site of present Penn Yan.

The Friend was not only a spiritual leader to her followers, but she also gave advice, settled minor disputes, consoled them at the loss of members of the flock, conducted their funerals and was skillful at treating their illnesses and injuries. Neighbors were well treated and the Indians regarded her as a good friend to them. Whenever groups of Indians came by, she, or members of her household, gave them food, and the Indians brought her deer meat or fish.

Travelers enjoyed the hospitality of the Friend, and even those hostile to her religion gave praise to her even-handed treatment of others around her.

Her temporary house in Jerusalem was enlarged several times before her permanent home was ready for occupancy. Situated on the hill to the west about a half mile from the "Brook Kedron" house, the sturdy, beautiful, New England style home has been restored by the present owners and stands today (2004) as a private dwelling.

Jemima Wilkinson’s home in Jerusalem, Yates County, New York

Construction began in 1809 and was completed in 1815.
The house was beautifully restored in the 1950s and 60s by Joseph and Rena Florance.
This 1908 photograph was supplied by Betty Smalley of Dresden.
All other pictures following were supplied by Jane P. Davis

She moved to her new house in 1814. In her later years, she became a victim of a slow and painful illness and rode in a coach fashioned for her on the under-carriage of the one she had owned in Pennsylvania. She kept active and continued to preach. The Friend was carried to the funeral of her sister, Patience Wilkinson Potter, on April 19, 1819, and preached her final public sermon. Jemima Wilkinson "left time" on July 1st that same year.

Back in the 1790's The Friend's followers, T. Hathaway and B. Robinson, had been offered land in the Geneseo area as well as the Jerusalem site. Because The Friend objected to separating her flock far from the original settlement, the Geneseo area land was refused. After The Friend had moved in 1794 to her temporary home by Brook Kedron, Hathaway and Robinson found they would be unable to pay for the whole of Jerusalem township. James Wadsworth, who had purchased the Geneseo area land which Hathaway and Robinson had refused, was already dealing in land in the western part of the state and went to England in 1796-97 on business. He sold this 7,000-acre plot in Jerusalem to a Scot, John Johnston.

Identifying which Johnstone or Johnston this person was, is a bit confusing because branches of the family frequently spelled their last name with or without the "e." According to Orsamus Turner's publication of 1851 titled History of the Settlement of the Phelps and Gorham Purchase and Morris Reserve, a John Johnstone came in 1791 from Scotland to America with Charles Williamson. Indeed, he was Williamson's "right hand man" in developing the earliest settlements of Williamsburg and Bath and Geneva, etc. In the late 1790s John served as a land agent for the Hornby and Colquhoun interests (part of the London Associates investor). He visited his native land from 1797 to 1799; This is how he was on hand to buy 7000 acres from James Wadsworth. He then sold them to John Beddoe, whose brother-in-law was Charles Johnstone, a first cousin of Sir William Johnstone-Pulteney. Networking worked—even in the1790s! A temporary deed was issued in 1798. Spelling of the grantor's name was Johnston in the body of the indenture and in the signatures of John Johnston and Ann Johnston.

John Johnston and Ann Johnston transferred 600 acres in 1798 to John Beddoe of Esperanza. A second deed to Beddoe, dated 16th of August, 1802, processed in Ontario County, NY., was for the entire 7,000 acres. It seems transfers from Wadsworth and the Morris family were not completed in 1798 but the legal work was cleaned up by 1802. The name is spelled Johnston on this deed as well. E. Thayles Emmons in his 1931 publication of The Story of Geneva states that "The house on the west side of Main Street at the corner of St. Clair Street…is reminiscent of the early activities of Cap't Charles Williamson, inasmuch as the original house on the lot was occupied by John Johnston, assistant to Cap't Williamson, and who served as accountant and office man." Evidently he dropped the "e" as he served as land agent in Geneva, Ontario County, New York. (Emmons p. 413) Emmons further mentions that Johnston, as he visited his homeland in 1799, had persuaded John Greig to come to America. Greig succeeded John Johnston upon his death in 1805, as agent for Hornby and Colquhoun lands, and had bought the Johnston house.

Map of eastern central area of the Genesee Tract showing the location of the Beddoe Tract in the Town of Jerusalem in Yates County. The Beddoe Tract was in the surveyed section designated as Number Seven in the Second Range. The Village of Branchport at the head of the left branch of Crooked Lake was in the Beddoe Tract. Map prepared from an 1803 map. Historical sites and villages, Yates County and present town names and boundaries added.

John Lynham Beddoe was born in Herford, Wales, in 1763. He entered the British maritime service and like other 15-year-old boys entering the service was sent off to work his way upward. The large East India Company was owner of many of the British ships which went to Africa, India, and China during the 1700's. In early December of 1782 Beddoe began the "In-Port Log" for the ship Sulivan. Since this ship was named for Lawrence Sulivan, an official of the East India Company in the 1760's, it must have been owned by the East India Company. J. Beddoe refers to the company throughout his log as the Hon'ble Co. (probably a shortening of Honorable, and much easier than to write out than the whole name). His "In-Port Log" is available, but the "High Seas Log" is not. Some excerpts copied from the "High Seas Log" are on record.

John Beddoe was 19 years of age at the beginning of this voyage. He kept both the "In-Port Log" and "High Seas Log" but did not list himself in the long list of officers and seamen. Commander Stephen Williams was in charge. Perhaps at this age Beddoe was acting as a servant to the Captain. The Log begins in Deptford during the loading of "Pig" iron for ballast, water and food for the voyage, various cargo items, and then readying the ship throughout. Daily records were kept of how various workers and seamen were employed, as well as stores of materials for the boatswain and gunner stores. Each day the wind and the weather conditions were recorded. If mooring, water depths were recorded and any cargo loaded or unloaded was noted.

In about a month's time, the ship moved to Gravesend. There sails were hauled out and cables readied for use. These operations took from December 5th, 1782, to March 4th, 1783. They then went to Portsmouth for more preparations and sailed for China the 15th of March, 1783, around Africa to Bombay to unload cargo and recruits by September 20th. This was the Sulivan's first voyage. It was a 876 ton vessel, built in England by Barnard.

The ship and crew appear to have spent from the 20th of September, 1783, to April 16th, 1784, making short trips up and down the west coast of India. Beddoe logged repeated entries naming Bombay, Tellicherry, Cochin, and Mangalore, where business was carried on for the British Military, the Hon'ble Company, and some private parties. Very careful records were made of other ships at anchor, or anchoring nearby, or sailing, and their destination, if known. Recorded also were ship's stores and food and water brought aboard for the crew. Gun salutes were the "cell phones" of the day, and much gun powder must have been spent firing salutes as new arrivals anchored or departed. Also, visiting dignitaries were accorded the same loud honor when they visited an anchored ship.

Beddoe carefully noted punishments to disorderly crew members or any deaths from illness or injury. Mentioned also, were ships wrecked by storms and the fate of the crew members who were endangered. Ship's crews were aware that warring factions on sea or shore brought the threat of hostile fire. This was frequently encountered in the Malacca Roads area between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific. Indeed, the log recorded delays in that area on this voyage. The Sulivan reached Whampoa [also spelled "Wampoe, in this log] by July 8th, 1784. The voyage from Tellicherry, India, had taken over two months, due partially to the Dutch military restrictions in the Malacca Straits, where they were struggling to keep control of the area.

The bay at Whampoa was 10 miles down river from Canton. This was the only access port the Chinese allowed foreign trading ships to use. China's military control was strict and officials called "hoppos" came and measured each ship upon its arrival and demanded hefty payments from each ship's Captain before any trade could take place. Long boats took cargo being sold up to the "hongs" which were the trading warehouses, just on the edge of the City of Canton. All tea, silks, dishes (china) and other merchandise bought from the Chinese merchants, was brought back down river in those long boats and loaded onto the ships anchored in Whampoa Bay.

Trouble came when the Captain of an English ship, The Lady Hughes, ordered his gunner to fire a salute as an important visitor left after visiting the Captain. A Chinese fisherman was accidentally killed by this tribute. The authorities had demanded the gunner, but could not find him. Late in November the Chinese authorities seized the Supercargo of The Lady Hughes as hostage, because of the death of the Chinese fisherman. "The Canton War" was the name given this unfortunate incident which became a story in itself, brief, but of international importance.

America's first trading ship to go to China, named The Empress of China anchored there Saturday, August 28, 1784. On board as Supercargo, (the ship's business agent), was Samuel Shaw, representing the first USA businessmen willing to risk sending a cargo for trade with China. Shaw was well received by the Chinese, but he objected to both the penalty for the hapless gunner and the taking of a hostage by the Chinese, even though in doing so, he risked a punitive reaction from the authorities and perhaps loss of his trading rights and his sponsor's cargo.

Shaw enlisted the help of the agents of the other ships anchored at Whampoa, who were to meet with the Chinese rulers up river at Canton, regarding this incident. Shaw proposed they all withhold any more trading of cargo until the Chinese recognized the unfairness of the death decree. During the meeting, they stood together, until a valuable bribe of two bolts of exquisite silk to each ship's representative was proffered by the Chinese official "in friendship." Then, they caved in. The fate of the gunner was sealed. Shaw took his "gift" and turned it in to Congress and John Jay, foreign affairs official, under the Articles of Confederation, with his protest of the unfair conduct of the Chinese officials. His cargo was sold at a good profit, and a cargo of tea purchased for his sponsors. Shaw was named first American Consul to Canton by the Confederation Congress in 1786.

Fan given to Samuel Shaw, super-cargo on THE EMPRESS OF CHINA, the first United States ship to trade with China, as a memento of the 1784 "Canton War" episode. SULIVAN was anchored nearby. The EMPRESS is the ship to the far left, identifiable by the US flag.

Beddoe had no knowledge of these details, he recorded in his log "Tuesday, September 7, 1784; Anchored here the Lady Hughes, Capt'n Williams from Bombay…." (this was in the Bay at Whampoa), (later as ship Sulivan was getting ready to depart and at the 2nd bar, in Canton River) "Sunday, November 28 …the ship Commodore brought an account that the ships at Whampoa, manned and armed their boats and sent them to Canton to obtain release of the Supercargo of the Lady Hughes, who was carried into the city, a prisoner." "Monday. November 29, 1784, …employed clearing the ship for sea, and for action, in case of an attack from the Chinese." "Wednesday, December l, 1784. At 2 PM the cutter returned from Canton, having the quartermaster that had steered her, wounded in the breast, in forcing her way up to the city. By her we learnt that the supercargo of the Lady Hughes was released, the Captain of her having delivered his gunner to the Chinese…." "Wednesday, December 8, 1784 - "…P.M. Came down, and anchored, the Lady Hughes."; Thursday, December 9, 1784 - "…A.M. sailed the Lady Hughes for Bombay:.". Thus, the new owner of 7,000 acres of NYS District of Jerusalem, was a "world traveler before he set foot on his new tract in America! Almost certainly, he was the only Jerusalem resident in 1798, who could have claimed the distinction of having been on three continents of the world.

John Beddoe had named his new real estate in New York, Esperanza. This is known for certain because he brought with him a younger cousin named David Morse. David Morse had been brought up by an uncle, John Evans, of Wales. Evans thought the young man had a chance of making his fortune in the "new world" of America, and a letter to him read, "I was very glad to hear of your safe arrival at Esperanza. I understand you all had hard work of it from New York thither…." Indeed, traveling to the "Genesee Country" in 1798 was difficult. The account of Beddoe, his young wife and David Morse and their travels, comes from several different sources. They arrived in New York from England in the middle of May of 1798. They took a sloop bound for Albany, a two-day trip, and went by land to Schenectady, where they purchased a three-ton boat. It had a "carriage assembly" which could be used in areas where portage was necessary.

They made their way, using the Mohawk River, Wood Creek, Oneida Lake, Oneida River, Cross Lake, Seneca River and Seneca Lake, Crooked Lake Outlet to Crooked Lake, with some tough portage spots in between bodies of water and around falls. Likely, teams of oxen were used to pull Beddoe's conveyance on the "dry" spots. The travel on Wood Creek is described in diaries of travelers in the 1790's as very tedious. On reaching Oneida Lake the travelers found hazards: "…the lake is extremely turbulent and dangerous…bateaumen commonly hug the north shore as safest…." From all accounts, Evan's remark in a letter to his nephew "…you had hard work of it from New York, thither…" only skimmed the surface of the great hardships endured by the Beddoe party in reaching their new home on the shores of Crooked Lake, in June.

Beddoe had hired James Sherratt, a carpenter in New York City, to come with the party to build a dwelling and farm buildings. Local lore has it, that he was called James Sherwood in this area. The Beddoe family homesite was located where Keuka Lake State Park is now. Stories published in the area newspapers over the years, do not all agree on the exact spot; there were three dwellings. Fragments of those accounts here indicate that Mrs. Catharine Beddoe stayed in Geneva for a brief time while her husband and James Sherratt (Sherwood) and five men hired in Geneva came to the Esperanza homesite and built a small frame dwelling. Mrs. Beddoe came to live in this home. Their first child, Johnstone Beddoe, was born there in 1804, and daughter, Charlotte in 1805.

The five man crew evidently went right at land clearing. Beddoe had 40 acres of winter wheat in the ground in the fall of 1798. This is documented in one of a series of letters written by Charles Williamson and published in The Documentary History of New York, Vol. 2, edited by E. B. O'Callaghan in Albany, NY; in 1849; p. 1158.

Recollections of some of Jerusalem Township's pioneers relate that in a few years Beddoe's homesite had the look of an English country estate. These same pioneers observed with good humor that Beddoe's life at sea had not readied him to be an agriculturist! Remembering that his previous hay crop had "heated" and spoiled in the barn, (due to its not being dry enough to store), Beddoe was exasperated at the difficulty he was having with the succeeding hay crop. He is said to have raged, "I cut that hay in the rain, piled it up in the rain, and drew it to the barn in the rain, and it will burn itself up in spite of the devil!" His farmer neighbors had a good laugh, but not in his presence.

Beddoe's second house, built in 1807 of hewed logs was larger than the framed house built by Sherratt. The site of this one is a bit vague in writings about the family, but it seems to have been a short way north of the first dwelling. This structure was built by Benjamin Durham. Henry Barnes, whose family came to Jerusalem in 1794 with Jemima Wilkinson, recalled that as a lad, he and his brother Julius helped to cut the notches to fit the ends of the logs at the corner joints. He said the logs were so carefully squared that they required no chinking, and that the finished building was a handsome one.

By this date another son, Lynham, arrived in 1807. He completed the family. It must have been a very rugged existence for Mrs. Catharine Beddoe, since medical facilities did not exist here yet. She died at age 35 at her home in 1815. She left a son of 11 years, a daughter of 10 years, and another son of 8 years. What a sad turn of events for a pioneer family!

Some accounts indicate a third dwelling, a framed house, had been built a bit farther back from the lake than the log dwelling. It stood near the J. N. Rose farmhouse, and was still standing in 1872. Written details on this dwelling seem elusive. It is recorded that John Nicholas Rose, son of Robert Selden Rose and Jane Lawson Rose, bought 1,058 acres from John Beddoe in 1824. This Rose family had come from Virginia to the Geneva area in 1804. John was the second son of this prosperous family. After graduating from Union College in Schenectady, his ambition was to own farm land at the north end of the west branch of Crooked Lake in Jerusalem Township of the "new" Yates County. This county had been "set-off" from the large Ontario County in the year in 1823.

* * *

It is appropriate to insert here the situation between Sir William Johnstone-Pulteney and his land agent, Charles Williamson. By 1800 Pulteney was upset that he was not getting more and faster returns on his investment. Since he never personally viewed his purchase of the Genesee Country, a complete wilderness, without connecting navigable waterways or trails wide enough for wagons, it is understandable that, because over a period of eight years funds had gone out rapidly and come back to him very slowly, he would reason that his investments were poorly managed. His strict habits of thrift imposed on himself, in his youth, were coming to the fore.

Pulteney decided to appoint Robert Troup to be his Land Agent in 1801 which meant that Charles Williamson would no longer be in the top command spot. This was not acceptable to Williamson. Small wonder that Williamson chose to "walk". Lockwood Doty in his Genesee Country, published in 1925 cited Samuel McCormack's memoir which said, "…Charles Williamson discharged his difficult duty in a manner which will not only be the source of incalculable advantage to the future proprietors, but to secure to him the lasting gratitude of that part of America which formed the theater of his meritorious exertions. He is styled with much propriety the Father of the Western Part of the State of New York."

To promote the sale of land, Charles Williamson had held "world fairs" in Williamsburg and Bath, complete with horse racing and entertainments, which attracted well-to-do men who bought land and spread the fame of the Genesee Country. He had roads built between settlements, hotels and sawmills erected, and he had successfully helped thwart Canada's Governor Simcoe's plan to interrupt establishment of the village of Sodus and to seize a buffer zone along the south shore of Lake Ontario. Williamson had written pamphlets promoting the region and cited successful settlers who had bought land and established homes and farms. All of this seemed to be insufficient in Sir William's eyes. Pulteney had a reputation for privacy, scrupulous honesty and integrity and very frugal living habits; Williamson was an outgoing, exuberant optimist—not surprisingly, their personalities clashed.

Attorney Robert Troup began his work when Charles Williamson resigned the duties of his Land Agent job in 1801. After long negotiations, settlement was made with Sir William Pulteney in 1805. Williamson was to have White Hart Farms, (the south end of Bluff Point) as part of the agreement. Until 1815 that portion of Bluff Point was still a part of Steuben County. He also received Springfield close to Lake Salubria near Bath. In all, Williamson received over 13,000 acres in the two parcels, and a small payment of cash—his reward for fourteen years of hard work. Perhaps, the London Associates thought the land would have sold in large parcels, bought by wealthy speculators who paid at once for their purchases. Instead, the pioneer farmers and businessmen were the buyers and needed to use their land to make money. Mortgages had to be arranged to do this. Clearing the land took time, improving roads and canals for access to markets took time, thus, payments came in slowly and disappointed the Associates.

Williamson returned to Scotland and entered government service. He died in 1808 of yellow fever while returning to England from government business in Havana, Cuba, and was buried at sea. A son and daughter had died as young children. Alexander, in Northumberland, Pennsylvania, in 1793; Christy in Bath from fever the same year. A daughter and a son, Charles A., went back to Scotland when their father returned in 1808. This son later married a Miss Clark and lived in Geneva, N.Y. He died in Ft. Laramie from cholera in 1818, while searching for gold. The rainbow's end did not seem to contain rewards for the Williamson family.

Sir William Pulteney had died three years previous to this in 1805 at age 75, his estate came to his only daughter, Henrietta Laura, Countess of Bath. She had married Sir James Murray, a cousin. She died at age 41 in 1811, and left no descendants. The Pulteney estate was administered through a succession of agents for the relatives. By 1904 much of the Pulteney Estate had been sold. The remainder was sold to Nichols and Wynkoop of Bath. Their representative sold the last deed to that remainder in 1926. The great American land speculation of Sir William Pulteney did not appear to be rewarding to him or his immediate family, but he certainly made history. In his obituary published in Gentlemen's Magazine it was stated, "… he was penurious only to himself."

John Johnstone, Williamson's right hand man, became land agent for the Hornby and Colquhoun portion of the London Associates in the Land Office in Geneva, N.Y. He, too, died in this same decade, in 1806, He was succeeded by John Greig, a young Scotsman he had persuaded to come to America while Johnstone was on a visit to Scotland in the late 1700's. Greig became a bank president, a Representative to Congress from Ontario and Livingston Counties, and Vice Chancellor of the New York State Board of Regents. He was held in high esteem by his associates.

* * *

Meanwhile, John Beddoe was perfecting his first "homestead" at the north end of Crooked Lake's west branch. His farming skills were few, but he persisted for a time. The grounds were well planned and looked like a bit of English countryside transplanted. David Morse, the cousin who had accompanied the Beddoes to America, worked for Captain Beddoe for several years, and by 1802 had written John Evans in England that he was buying farmland just to the southeast of Captain Beddoe's purchase. Eventually David Morse had a farm of about a 300 acres. His Uncle John seemed proud of him in letters written in reply to David's news, especially that David's new farm was named, Trerose, which was the name of the Morse holdings in Wales. David married Mary Boyd, daughter of William and Esther Parkinson Boyd in August of 1804. They prospered and farmed the Bluff Point farm and by 1820 had a family of four sons and a daughter.

John Beddoe in 1812 sold 640 acres to a George Brown. This plot occupied the area around the north end of the west branch of Crooked Lake and the site of the little village of Branchport. However, George Brown died comparatively young and the property reverted to John Beddoe.

Beddoe had the 5,000 acres of the western end of his purchase surveyed by Jabez French into ½ mile square lots which he advertised for sale in the Geneva Gazette in 1816. Many deeds to these properties, even today, reference the location as, "Lot # ( __ ) of the Beddoe Tract."


After losing his wife in 1815, and selling over a thousand acres of his original "set aside" acreage to John Nicholas Rose, John Beddoe and his children moved, about 1825, to his "homestead westside" which was directly across the west branch of Crooked Lake from his first homesite. By this time his children's ages were 21, 20, and 18.

Johnstone Beddoe, the eldest, died in 1828 from epilepsy. Charlotte Beddoe married, in 1828, George Stafford of Geneva. In 1829 they had a son, John Beddoe Stafford, who grew up in the household of his Uncle Lynham, after his parents died in the early 1830's.

John Beddoe continued to live on his "homestead westside" until 1829 when he sold part of this site to James and Rebecca Taylor. They lived there until 1850 raising a large family in this location just south of Basswood Creek.

Lynham Beddoe married in 1831, Eleanor Cuyler Cost of Oaks Corners, New York. Lynham and Eleanor soon moved to the large house built by George Brown only a few doors south of the four corners in Branchport. That property had come back into John Beddoe's possession after Brown's death in 1820. The couple had four children: Eleanor C., William C. J., James C. and Mary Cammann. Only three of Captain Beddoe's grandchildren were born before the Captain's death in 1835 at the home of his son Lynham. (those would have been John Beddoe Stafford and the first two of Lynham and Eleanor's children, James C. and Mary Cammann were born later than 1835).

John Beddoe's granddaughter, Mary Cammann Beddoe Hurd,
and her husband, Duane Hurd in a 1920's photo. Both Hurds died
in the mid 1930's. She was the last surviving descendant of Captain Beddoe.

John Beddoe served three terms as Town of Jerusalem Supervisor and later on, Lynham, also, held that office. Lynham established a hardware store on the northeast site at the four corners. He inherited the balance of the unsold lots of the Beddoe Tract. By this time, lumber merchants had chosen to buy large lots in this area. The opening of the Crooked Lake Canal completed in 1833, alongside the outlet from Penn Yan to Dresden, greatly stimulated their business. The canal allowed narrow rafts of logs to be floated around the end of Bluff Point to Penn Yan then into the canal and on to Seneca Lake, thence, to the Seneca Canal and the Erie Canal to the Hudson River to the ship building industry at Yonkers.

Two of Branchport's prominent citizens engaged in the timbering business. They came about 1832, bought land on the Beddoe Tract, shipped away the timber and sold the land for farming. Peter Bitley, on contract with Nichols and Paddock, and later on his own, became prosperous from shipping spar timbers by this water route. Solomon D. Weaver, also, engaged in the same practice, with handsome financial reward.

John Nicholas Rose, who had bought over a thousand acres from Captain Beddoe, in 1824, established his farming operations and by 1838 had completed the building of his handsome mansion. He chose a prime location on a slope overlooking the west branch of Crooked Lake. He built a stone mansion with Greek Revival architectural features. The four massive stone pillars on the south-facing portico gave great dignity to the structure, the largest single dwelling ever built in Yates County. The view toward the lake—spectacular! Completed in 1838 and named "Esperanza" it still stands today, one hundred and sixty-six years later, but (as noted by Verne M. Marshall in his Roses of Geneva) has had a rather checkered history of use.

Built in 1838 by John Nicholas Rose of Branchport.
For more about the Roses and Esperanza, read “The Branchport Connection”
from The Roses of Geneva by Verne M. Marshall
reprinted in Issue 84, March, 1995, The Crooked Lake Review.
Included are first floor and second floor plans of the supposed original room arrangements.

In 1873 George Snow had vineyards there and a grape juice company in Penn Yan. His family also lived in the mansion. Wendell T. Bush and family in 1903 used it as a dwelling, as did Clinton Struble in 1917. Yates County bought the farm and dwelling in 1923 and made some additions and remodeling to use it as a County Home for elderly and unfortunate county residents who needed a place to live. By 1950 the County felt the farm and upkeep of the buildings was impractical. Other accommodations were sought for the residents and for many years the building stood vacant. Serious vandalism took place during the next years. Another party bought the property but did not actively farm or use it as a residence. An art gallery was attempted by Mrs. Betty Ann Bader, in its next use. She began some restoration in 1967 but her early death brought a close to her project.

Then in 1979, a winery named Chateau Esperanza was established by the Lombardi family. The basement area was used for wine production and the tasting room was in the west wing. Little restoration was attempted. In 1985 this winery operation was suspended. A real estate developer proposed a series of townhouses on the farmland uphill from the mansion and restoration of the mansion for a hotel, but sudden changes in real estate values doomed that construction. Shay and Edwards purchased it to develop a bed and breakfast and restaurant, but repairs and upkeep prevented the completion of their plans.

In 2003, Esperanza received a multi-million dollar renovation in the hands of new owners, David and Lisa Wegman. A full-service banquet facility building has been added, a new restaurant within the mansion, as well as nine suites for bed and breakfast accommodations. The grounds have been newly landscaped. The meaning of "Esperanza"—hope—has become visible, after a long interval.

John Nicholas Rose's brother, Henry, built his home "Hampstead" about a mile east of his brother's Esperanza, but not on the Beddoe Tract. It was completed about the same year. Henry Rose's mansion was smaller, of wood construction, and in the Greek style. It also has stood the test of time and still stands today, and is in use.

Built in 1840 by Henry Rose of Branchport.
For a description and history of the house, read Gloria Sill Tillman in Issue 41, August,
1991, The Crooked Lake Review. Her grandfather was the nephew of Henry Rose.
She was born in the house and lived there at the time she wrote the article.
A drawn elevation and floor plan is included.

Shortly after John Nicholas Rose's death in 1870, his wife, Jane Macomb Rose, moved to a small house a bit south of St. Luke's Episcopal Church in nearby Branchport. The Rose families were instrumental in the building and support of the beautiful stone church, built in 1866-1868. St. Luke's has an active congregation and has been kept in excellent repair, with some additions and modification.

St. Luke's Episcopal Church completed in 1866 across the street from
the Lynham Beddoe residence in Branchport.

A nephew of the Rose's, having the same name as his grandfather, Robert Selden Rose, also built a large home on land which had been part of the Beddoe purchase. It was the site of the Beddoe's first residence. R. S. Rose had bought from his Uncle John N., in 1853, about 360 acres along the lakeshore. He built a large stone house there, not as grand as his two uncles' mansions, but a fine dwelling. He had married Frances T. Cammann of New York City. She was the daughter of a well-to-do banker who may have helped the couple purchase their homesite on Keuka Lake. They raised a family of seven children there. These children remained in the area as adults. The only daughter, Catharine Navarre Macomb Rose, devoted much of her life to activities related to St. Luke's Church. Three of her brothers lived in Geneva and three lived at "the Chestnuts" (as the R. Selden Rose place was called) or nearby. This beautiful house was demolished to make room for the Keuka Lake State Park buildings in the 1960's.

A nephew of John N. and Henry Rose, R. Selden Rose and his wife, Frances Cammann Rose,
built "The Chestnuts" on the site of John Beddoe's first home about 1850. It was demolished
in the 1960's to build the Keuka Lake State Park buildings.

So, at the start of the 21st Century, two of the three Rose structures stand, but only one of the Beddoe's houses remains, the house built before 1820 by George Brown in Branchport, in which Lynham and Eleanor Beddoe had raised their family, and where Captain John Beddoe spent the last two years of his life. The house in 1908 was cut into halves. The south portion was to have been moved just 30 feet south across the driveway and friends of the owner's at that time were to buy it. The plans were altered and the south half is in use today as a dwelling about a five hundred feet southward along the Main Street, but on the opposite side facing west, beside the Branchport Library. The north half still is on its original site, across from St. Luke's Episcopal Church. It has been used as a dwelling almost continuously.

Brown had purchased 640 acres from John Beddoe. It was intended as a tavern
but Brown died and the property reverted to the Beddoes. Lynham Beddoe, son
of Captain John Beddoe, lived here with his wife and family in the 1830s.
John Beddoe died here in his son’s house in 1834.

The Beddoe Purchase on the early maps appears in two segments. One part, about 2,000 acres near the end of the west branch of Crooked Lake was not shown to be in surveyed lots. The other section of the purchase, was the 5,000 acres (about two miles wide and four miles, east to west) which Captain Beddoe had Jabez French survey into thirty-two plots of 160 acres each to be sold as farmland.

The settlement which became Branchport was slow to take root. George Brown had bought, in 1812 from Beddoe, six-hundred and forty acres at the north end of the west branch and around to the west side of the lake. He built within a few years, a large two-story frame house, 60 feet long, intending it to be used as an inn and tavern. It was reputed to be the first frame house in the village. He was not able to complete his plans and died in 1820, before he had completely paid for his purchase, which reverted to John Beddoe, since his widow, Sarah Potter Brown was unable to pay off the debt. This was the house in which, later on, Lynham Beddoe and wife Eleanor raised their family and their nephew, John Beddoe Stafford.

The town grew slowly because the inlet to the lake, Sugar Creek, offered no good place for fording such deep, and in springtime, such swift water. It was difficult to build sturdy bridges in that era, and the swampy terrain was not encouraging. The creek was fordable 2 miles to the north, so the Stage Route ran from Penn Yan to Larzelere's Tavern up West Hill to Italy Hill, then over to Prattsburg, Wheeler and Bath, completely missing Branchport.

By 1831, Samuel S. Ellsworth and Spencer Booth built a store on the southwest corner of the cross trails. Spencer Booth suggested the name Branchport when a post office was to be established. A usable bridge was soon fixed in place across the inlet stream.

The history of the settlement is well told in S. C. Cleveland's History of Yates County, (1873) and in Miles Davis' History of Jerusalem, (1912). Stimulated by the great demand for spars and timbers and farmers hungry for land to farm, the little village had a population over 300 in mid 1800's. The blacksmiths, cabinet makers, coopers, wagon makers, carpenters, and the operators of sawmills, harness shops, grist mills, and basket factories—are all named in the books mentioned.

Beddoe Tract land began to be sold for farm land in 1825. Albert Cowing is reputed to have been the first permanent settler on the 5,000 acres that had been surveyed into lots by Jabez French. Cowing's parents and their large family had come to the area west of Seneca Lake in 1803. Settlers in Jerusalem had as their principal product pine shingles, which became known as "Jerusalem Currency." Cowing and his wife, Sally Torrance, established their holdings about a mile east of the Italy Township border. Their "farm" was a dense wilderness of principally pine and oak trees. To make pine shingles the settler needed an axe, a cross-cut saw, a shaving knife and froe, and a rough bench called a wood horse. The worker then cut the trunk of the felled tree into 16" or 17" segments. Taking a segment to his "wood-horse" bench, he used the other tools to split and edge the shingles.

The new settlers had the strenuous job of clearing the land of the stumps and roots to make way for the fields to raise wheat, oats, corn, beans and hay. Hay was the "gasoline" of the day, for transportation was by horse or ox-drawn vehicles. Up-turned stumps were the fences to keep livestock in their pastures. The roots were made to interlock so that the larger animals were fenced in. It would be hard to find such a fence still in existence today. No road had been laid out from Branchport to Italy Hill in the late 1820's, and farmers had to make their own. When John Nutt in 1827 bought 160 acres about a mile west of Branchport, he hired Simeon Cole to cut a road by his place to the road to Pulteney.

Names of other very early buyers of lots on the Beddoe Tract were John and William Runner, Ezra Loomis, Meli and Benajah Todd, Daniel Johnson, Benjamin Rogers, and Seneca Badger. These names only skim the surface. Surprisingly, most of these buyers moved here from the Starkey and Milo area; they were not newly-arrived immigrants from England or Ireland.

Lumber merchant, Peter Bitley, shipped from 1833 to the mid-1860's an average of 250,000 cubic feet of timber annually according to Fran Dumas' excellent book A Good Country, A Pleasant Habitation. That translates into two and a half million board feet a year! Much of this was from the Beddoe Tract. From 1865 to after the turn of the century, grape culture became a very important farm industry and the hillsides along the valleys were suited to this use. A steamboat dock at Branchport made shipping handy. Two brothers in the Stever family set out some of those vineyards along the south border of the tract by the Steuben County line.

A railroad was built in 1897 with warehouses at Kinney's Corners and Branchport, which gave another shipping point for produce grown on this tract.

View from Pinnacle (once called Rose Hill) looking west, circa. 1915, shows Branchport, and some of the farmlands sold from the original Beddoe Tract. The Penn Yan, Keuka Park, Branchport Railroad was functioning and warehouses at East side and near Sugar Creek are visible. The steamboat dock at the south end of the village is beyond the left side, but most of the "steamers" had been retired by this date.

A survey on use of farmland early in the twenty-first century on the land encompassed by the Beddoe Tract, would find that crop farming of wheat, oats, rye, buckwheat, barley, corn, beans, is not profitable, although some is grown. Dairying and livestock raising, as well, are not found to flourish, although all of these farm activities were money makers for the early settlers and those farmers who followed, until about 1960. Whether world markets, improved transportation or government agricultural policies, caused the change, is subject to debate. Grapes continue to be grown, but not the table grapes or grapes for grape juice, jellies, nor standard wines, which the earliest vineyardists found profitable. Instead, currently, most vineyards are planted to hybrid vines. The market is best for "European Type" varietal wines which these vines produce. The change in New York State law to allow "Estate Wineries" on individual farms; the rising popularity of wine consumption; coupled with tourism promoted by regional Chambers of Commerce wine tasting tours, has breathed new life into agriculture on the slopes of the Beddoe Tract near Keuka Lake.

Much of the cropland, not devoted to vineyards, is being let go back to brush and woods. Some has been reforested, some grows low quality hay, cut and baled up to be used as mulch between vineyard rows. But there is a rapidly growing "crop" on these beautiful slopes—dwellings! Some are quite modest, some are large and impressive. They all share the wonderful scenic vistas of hills and lake. Many are along the highways, nearly as many are at the ends of long driveways in wooded sites along small streams. John Beddoe, if his spirit were to come back today, would not find English country estates, but people very happy to be in such beautiful settings.

Perhaps, if human life-span had been 300 years instead of 77 years for Sir William Johnstone-Pulteney, and he could have read the assessment valuation of the real estate encompassed in his huge purchase in today's terms, he might have seen that in the long haul, his real estate investment was very sound. He might even have taken a more charitable view of Williamson's approach to opening up the territory.

All is supposition, but The Beddoe Tract has not lost its charm or beauty, and for today, if John Nicholas Rose and wife, Jane Macomb Rose, could visit ESPERANZA, they would see it shine! Vacationers and campers and local citizens can enjoy Keuka Lake State Park on the grounds of Captain John Lynham Beddoe's homestead.

View of Branchport on Keuka Lake
© 2004, Jane P. Davis


It is harder, sometimes, to "sweep up" after a main event than it was to prepare and participate. In designating sources, it's important that contributing reservoirs of information do not miss getting mentioned.

The information furnished by Jeffrey M. Johnstone, in his account of Sir William Johnstone-Pulteney and Charles Williamson, was of prime importance to this endeavor. This background material was part of the foundation on which the Beddoe Tract history rests. In addition, Jeffrey's assurance that within the Johnstone genealogy (as in many other families) the "e" may be used or dropped at the end of the surname by different members of the same "clan". This encouraged me to pursue the identity of the purchaser of the "Wadsworth" property and to discover that it was the same John Johnstone who had accompanied Charles Williamson to USA in 1791. He signed the deeds to John Beddoe's 1798 purchase, using the "Johnston" spelling.

The works of Frances Dumas and of David Minor (Eagles Byte) helped enormously with sequence and continuity. The historical essay Steps West by John M. Robortella aided with an understanding of the land surveys and the Pre-emption Line survey, along with copies of primary documents.

Orsamus Turner's Pioneer History of Phelps & Gorham Purchase, and E. Thayles Emmons's The Story of Geneva furnished background on the Pulteney Estate and the land-office era of the story. As always, when pursuing local historical events, S. C. Cleveland's History of Yates County was very valuable. Herbert A. Wisbey, Jr.'s Pioneer Prophetess filled in details of Jemima Wilkinson, the Publick Universal Friend and her colony.

John Lynham Beddoe's "In-Port Log" on the EIC Sulivan 1783-1785 trip from England to China when he was just 19 and 20 years of age, was an important source. From data received on the Internet from Tony Fuller, who does marine research, it was possible to find data on the ship, not only when it was built but, where, and its size, and additionally, Captain Stephen Williams's full name and family background, and when he retired from sea duty.

Robert W. Drexler wrote in April 1997 an article for American History (magazine) entitled "The Canton War" which filled in the background for Beddoe's short account of "the trouble with the Lady Hughes," as he recorded it in his log.

Frances Dumas, Yates County Historian, was able to loan me copies of letters to Beddoe and his cousin David Morse (one to John Beddoe before he emigrated to the U. S. from Charles Johnstone dated 12/16/1797, letters to David Morse from his uncle, John Evans, 1799 - 1805), as well as copies of letters to a local newspaper by Henry Barnes, who helped build the second John Beddoe house on his "purchase" beside Crooked Lake.

Verne M. Marshall of Geneva, NY, published in 1993, a most interesting and informative book, The Roses of Geneva, which, along with Cleveland's history, and The History of Jerusalem by Miles Davis (1912), supplied local background material. From an unknown newspaper of April 1870 was an account of the Beddoe Family and in another paper a list of early settlers on the Beddoe Tract. Local newspaper articles on the Beddoe family were also used: Flora Evans Vail's "Beddoe Family" appeared in the Chronicle Express, Penn Yan, NY, in 1932; Frank Swann mentions Mary Cammann Beddoe Hurd in a May 16, 1936, issue and articles "Henry Rose House, Hampstead," (1952) and "John Beddoe" (1952) in the Chronicle Express.

David Minor's series about the life of Charles Williamson, "The Life of a Salesman" in the Crooked Lake Review, traced Williamson's involvement in the Pulteney land purchase.

Copies of Deeds and Court Actions from the Yates County Court House also substantiated the limits and dates of purchase for the Beddoe Tract.

A letter to Sally Davis from Mrs. Mabel (Nathan) Oaks in 1969 regarding Eleanor Cuyler Cost Beddoe provided information.

Maps were also helpful and included an 1824 map of the Genesee Country, 1829 & 1840 maps by Burr, an 1865 map by Stone and Stewart, and a Cyrus Wheelock 1876 map published by Everts & Ensign.

The pieces of the "jig-saw puzzle" have existed for some time. Stories, both accurate and inaccurate, appeared in locally published materials. The restoration of the Sulivan log brought the need for this history to the fore. The Canton War piece by Robert W. Drexler (American History, March 1997) also needed to be incorporated into the background that was available on Captain John Beddoe and his family. What courage it must have taken for this little family to persevere on the frontier at that time, and what sorrow they had to endure. The Township of Jerusalem is indeed fortunate that some of the early-built structures still survive: Lynham Beddoe's dwelling, and the two Rose mansions, Esperanza and Hampstead. Maybe "HOPE" was an accurate name for Beddoe's venture.

Broken grave marker for John Beddoe lying in the
Beddoe-Rose Cemetery in Keuka Lake State Park


Brooks, Charles E., Frontier Settlement, Holland Purchase, Cornell Univ. Press, 1996.

Cleveland, S. C., History of Yates County, 2 vol., Chronicle office, Penn Yan, NY 1873.

Davis, Miles A., History of Jerusalem, Penn Yan, NY, 1912.

Doty, Lockwood R., History of the Genesee Country, Charles Pub. Co., Chicago, 1924.

Dumas, Frances, A Good Country, A Pleasant Habitation, NYSARC, Penn Yan, NY, 1990.

Dumas, Frances and S. Coneybeare, Cemeteries of Yates County, 1996.

Emmons, E. Thayles, "The Story of Geneva," Geneva Daily Times, Geneva, NY, 1931.

Gardner, Brian, The East India Company, Barnes & Noble, NYC, 1971.

Hedrick, U. P., History of Agriculture - New York State, New York Agriculture Society, 1933.

Jemison, B. P. and Anna Schlein, Treaty of Canandaigua, 1794, Clear Light Pub., Santa Fe, 2000.

Johnstone, Jeffrey M.," Sir William Johnstone Pulteney," Crooked Lake Review, Issue #132, 2004.

Marshall, Verne M., The Roses of Geneva, Windswept Press, Interlaken, NY, 1993.

New York State Canals, Edition of 1952, U.S. Lake Survey, Detroit MI, 1952.

Robortella, John M., Steps West: The Field Notes of Col. Hugh Maxwell (1733-1799). " Summary" appeared in The Crooked Lake Review, Spring 2004.

Rose, Christina L., "Esperanza," House Beautiful Magazine, Vol. XL. #2, 1916.

Smith, Warren Hunting, "The Chestnuts," The Crooked Lake Review, pp. 8 - 9, Issue 28, July, 1990.

Turner, Orsamus, Pioneer History of Phelps and Gorham Purchase, Alling, 1851.

"When West Met East—Picture Portfulio," American Heritage, pp. 9 - 25, August 1972.

White, Marion Churchill, Centennial and Ten: A History of St. Luke's Parish, Tillman, Penn Yan, 1966.

Willis Clarence, The Pulteney Land Title: Genesee Tract, 5th Ed., Advocate Press, 1924.

Wisbey, Herbert A., Jr., Pioneer Prophetess, Publick Universal Friend, Cornell Univ. 1924.

[Articles in the CLR: "Hampstead," by Gloria S. Tillman, includes sketch and floor plan, Issue 41, August, 1991; "Recollections of Jemima Wilkinson, [The friend."]'The Friend,' as Related in 1890 by Mrs. Huldah Barnes Davis and an explanation by Herbert A. Wisbey, Jr.," Issue 55, October 1992; "The Branchport Connection," from The Roses of Geneva by Verne M. Marshall, Issues 79 and 84; Esperanza floor plans of supposed original arrangement, Issue 84, March, 1995.]

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