Peter Henderson's Gardening Calendar
from Gardening for Profit, 1866
NOVEMBER—This month warns us that winter is approaching, and preparations should be carefully made towards securing all products of the garden that are perishable by frost. The process of putting away the Celery crop in trenches for winter use should be begun about the 5th or 10th of the month in dry weather; that put in trenches then, will be blanched sufficiently for use in six or eight weeks, but when sufficient help can be obtained, it will always pay well to bank or earth up a large portion of Celery by the spade, clear to the top; this will keep it safe from injury from any frost that we have in this month, and thus protected, it need not be put away into winter quarters—the trenches—before the end of November; put away thus late, it will keep without the loss of a root until March or April, when it is always scarce and high in price.
The great difficulty most persons have, is from stowing it away and covering it up too early; this practice of earthing it up to the top roughly in November we have only practiced for the past two seasons, but find the extra labor well repaid, as we are enabled thus to save this very valuable crop without loss. There is rarely need of applying any covering of leaves or litter to the trenches this month, and it cannot be too often told that the covering up of vegetables of all kinds in winter quarters should be delayed to the very last moment that it is safe to do so. Beets, Carrots, Cabbages, and Cauliflowers, must be dug up, and secured this month in the manner recommended in "Preserving Vegetables in Winter." Horseradish, Salsify, and Parsnips, being entirely hardy, and frost proof, need not necessarily be dug, although from the danger of their being frozen in the ground next month, if time will permit, the work had better be progressing.
All clear ground should be dug or plowed, and properly leveled, so that on the opening of spring, operations can be begun with as little delay as possible. If draining is required, this is the most convenient time to do it, the ground being clear, and not yet much frozen.
Towards the end of the month, the sashes should be put on the Cabbage and Lettuce plants in cold nights, but on no account should they be kept on in day time, as it is of the utmost importance that they be not made tender at this time by being "drawn" under the sashes. I may again repeat that these plants are half hardy, and it is killing them with kindness to protect them from slight freezing. Cabbage and Lettuce plants may be exposed in any place without glass, or other protection, where the thermometer runs no lower than 10 above zero. Rhubarb and Asparagus beds will be benefited by a covering of 4 or 6 inches of rough manure, or any other litter, to prevent the severity of the frost; the crop from beds, thus covered will come in a few days earlier, and will be stronger than if left unprotected.